Industry funding defeats transitivity

From The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine:

[One problem] is that industry-sponsored trials are more likely to show a beneficial effect than non-industry funded trials [261,536–540]… This bias can have paradoxical consequences. For example, Heres et al. [541] examined randomized trials that compared different antipsychotic medications. They found that olanzapine beat risperidone, risperidone beat quetiapine, and quetiapine beat olanzapine! The relative success of the drugs was directly related to who sponsored the trial. For example, if the manufacturers of risperidone sponsored the trial, then risperidone was more likely to appear more effective than the others.

The reference is Heres et al. (2006).


  1. shaka beny says

    Hi,dear Luke:
    I am reading your “ancient india phylosophy”,and would like to translate into chinese.I have practiced meditation some years,and have being read lots of works of Buddha.Comparing to the Western phylosophy,eastern culture,especial ancient india phylosophies are more useful for a man to learn how to live a real happy life.and it is appearent that ancient india phylosophy is full of much more intelligence than the Western phylosophy.
    Hope for your reply.

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